Once substance dependence develops, a progressive series of self-reinforcing symptoms begin to develop.  Two models of the progressive symptoms will be presented:   (1) The DSM-IV Progressive Symptom Model; and (2) The Biopsychosocial Progressive Symptom Model.

The DSM IV Progressive Symptom Model was developed by completing a three step procedure:

Step 1:  Analyzing the DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders,

Step 2:  Dividing specific criteria that contained more than one identifiable symptom into separate symptoms,

Step 3:  Arranging the symptoms in a logical progression supported by both face validity and studies of widely accepted models that sequence addiction symptom development (Jellinek 1960; Glatt 1982; APA 1994, NIAAA 1995).

The Biopsychosocial Progressive Symptom Model was developed by completing the following steps:

Step 1:  Reviewing past progressive symptom model (Jellinek 1960; Glatt 1982),

Step 2:  Reviewing recent related to models of addiction containing biological, psychological, or social symptoms (Tarter et al 1988; Tabakoff 1988; NIAAA 1996; NIAAA 1995);

Step 3:  Isolating specific symptoms from all models, grouping into similar categories, and eliminating duplication; and

Step 4:  Integrating the newly identified symptoms into the The DSM-IV Progressive Symptom Model in proper order of development.



This is from T. Gorski – for more information visit www.tgorski.com